EEG-mapping differences between narcolepsy patients and controls and subsequent double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with modafinilby
Saletu MT, Anderer P, Saletu-Zyhlarz GM,
Mandl M, Arnold O, Nosiska D, Zeitlhofer J, Saletu B.
Department of Neurology,
University of Vienna, Austria.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004 Nov 12
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of EEG mapping as an objective and quantitative measure of vigilance in untreated and modafinil-treated narcoleptics, and compare it with the conventional neurophysiological method of the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) and the subjective Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). In 16 drug-free narcoleptics and 16 normal controls a baseline 3-min vigilance-controlled EEG (V-EEG) and a 4-min resting EEG (R-EEG) were recorded during midmorning hours. Thereafter, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, patients were treated with a 3-week fixed titration of modafinil (200, 300, 400 mg) and placebo. EEG-mapping, MSLT and ESS measures were obtained before and at the end of the third week of therapy. Statistical overall analysis by means of the omnibus significance test demonstrated significant EEG differences between untreated patients and controls in the resting condition only (R-EEG). Subsequent univariate analysis revealed an increase in absolute and relative theta power, a decrease in alpha-2 and beta power as well as a slowing of the dominant frequency and the centroids of the alpha, beta and total power spectrum and thus objectified a vigilance decrement in narcolepsy. Modafinil 400 mg/d significantly improved vigilance as compared with placebo (p = 0.01), inducing changes opposite to the aforementioned baseline differences (key-lock principle). The MSLT and the ESS also improved under modafinil as compared with placebo, but changes were less consistent. Spearman rank correlations revealed the highest correlations between EEG mapping and the ESS, followed by those between EEG mapping and the MSLT, while the lowest correlation was found between the MSLT and the ESS. In conclusion, EEG mapping is a valuable instrument for measuring vigilance decrements in narcolepsy and their improvement under psychostimulant treatment.
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